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MOVIES
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MACRO-MICRO

Equiaxed solidification in ammonium chloride - water solutions

Solidification in this system is strongly affected by convection in the liquid, driven by solutal buoyancy (the water-rich liquid near the crystals is less dense than the average composition), or by residual convection from the initial filling of the mold. (43 Mb) Courtesy John Hunt.

Columnar to equiaxed transition growth

In situ and real-time observation by synchrotron X-ray radiography of the columnar to Equiaxed Transition (CET) during refined Al-3.5wt% Ni solidification, G = 30 K/cm. CET is induced by increasing the pulling rate from V = 1.5 to 12 microns/s. The aluminium rich solidified parts appear in grey while the Ni enriched liquid is darker.
(5 Mb)

This movie was obtained by in-situ X-ray radiography carried out at ESRF Grenoble on the ID19 beamline. For further information and other work, please send email to: bernard.billia@im2np.fr, henri.nguyen-thi@im2np.fr, nathalie.mangelinck@im2np.fr, or guillaume.reinhart@im2np.fr

Fragmentation

Top-down solidification of a Ga-30wt%In alloy: Dendrite growth and side arm detachment (cooling rate 0.07 K/s, temperature gradient 2.5 K/mm)

This movie, produced by Natalia Shevchenko, Stephan Boden and Sven Eckert, were obtained by in-situ X-ray video microscopy carried out using a microfocus X-ray tube (XS225D, Phoenix|X-ray). For further information, please email to: s.eckert_at_hzdr.de

Fragmentation and CET formation

Top-down solidification of a Ga-30wt%In alloy: Formation of free crystals and subsequent CET (see also S. Boden, B. Willers, S. Eckert and G. Gerbeth, Int. J. Cast Metals Res. 22(2009), 30) (cooling rate 0.15 K/s, temperature gradient 2.5 K/mm)

This movie, produced by Natalia Shevchenko, Stephan Boden and Sven Eckert, were obtained by in-situ X-ray video microscopy carried out using a microfocus X-ray tube (XS225D, Phoenix|X-ray). For further information, please email to: s.eckert_at_hzdr.de

Simulated solidification grain structure in a non-refined aluminum - 7 wt% silicon alloy

This movie is derived from a cellular automaton - finite element simulation performed by collaborators at MINES ParisTech CEMEF.

Simulation of directional solidification of an Al-7%Si alloy with no grain refiner in a 70mm diameter, 173 mm long cylinder with insulated sides. The movie shows a transition from a columnar structure to an equiaxed structure, modeled using a Cellular Automaton (CA) method to track the nucleation and growth of the envelope of each individual dendritic grain, coupled with a Finite Element (FE) method to compute the heat flow. It predicts the occurrence of recalescences that take place upon the nucleation and growth of dendritic and eutectic grains. [T. Carozzani, H. Digonnet and Ch.-A. Gandin, Modeling and Simulation in Materials Science, 20:015010, 2012] (5 Mb)

Multipass welding grain structure simulation

This movie is derived from a cellular automaton - finite element simulation performed by collaborators at MINES ParisTech CEMEF.

Multipass welding simulation at overlapping depths in a 120 mm long x 50 mm thick x 30 mm wide block of the URANUS 2202 alloy (Fe-0.02C-22Cr-2Ni-2Mn-0.45Mo-0.2N). The Goldak volumetric heat source is used to compute the distribution of energy. The temperature field is deduced by the FE method and shown in the first 3 movies with (red) the 3D isosurface corresponding the liquidus isotherm and (lines) the temperature of the edges of the FE mesh at the boundaries of the domain, with colors proportional to the temperature. Three sets of parameters are chosen for the Goldak heat source, corresponding to the 3 successive passes shown with (pass #1) high intensity, (pass #2) medium intensity and (pass #3) low intensity, thus leading to decreasing sump depths. The positions of the passes are also offsets by 2 mm from each other. The initial size of the grain structure is 134 micrometers. Upon remelting and resolidification, epitaxial growth proceeds from the partially remelted grains. As a result, a columnar structure grows that propagates the grain anisotropy and creates a weld crystallographic texture. The non-symmetrical final structure of the top surface is due to the 2 mm offsets of the different passes. More information can be found in S. Chen, G. Guillemot, Ch.-A. Gandin, ISIJ int. Vol. 54 (2014) No. 2.

Al20Cu_equiaxed

Equiaxed dendritic growth during directional solidification parallel with gravity in Al-20wt%Cu. Imposed temperature gradient of 38 K/mm, sample velocity of 17.5 microns/s. (4.5 Mb)

This movie, produced by Ragnvald Mathiesen and Lars Arnberg, was obtained by in-situ X-ray video microscopy carried out at the ESRF in Grenoble, France at beam lines ID22 and ID6. For further information, please email to: Ragnvald.Mathiesen@ntnu.no

Detailed description

Fragmentation

Fragmentation in Al-20wt%Cu during directional solidification anti parallel with gravity. Imposed temperature gradient of 48 K/mm, and sample velocity of 25 microns/s. (7.7 & 7.8 Mb)

These movies, produced by Ragnvald Mathiesen and Lars Arnberg, were obtained by in-situ X-ray video microscopy carried out at the ESRF in Grenoble, France at beam lines ID22 and ID6. For further information, please email to: Ragnvald.Mathiesen@ntnu.no

Solidification of a dendritic Al-8%Cu alloy

This movie shows the evolution during solidification of a 2D section extracted from the volume of an Al-8%Cu specimen. These images were obtained by in-situ X-Ray tomography carried out at ESRF Grenoble on the ID19 beamline. The alloy is initially fully liquid. During solidification, the primary Al-rich phase forms and grows. At the same time, shrinkage of the specimen occurs and the remaining liquid becomes more and more absorbent (lighter and lighter) indicating Cu enrichment. The solidification ends with the formation of the eutectic mixture Al-Al2Cu. (14 Mb)

This movie was obtained by in-situ X-Ray tomography carried out at ESRF Grenoble on the ID19 beamline. For further information and other work by Michel Suery, please send email to: michel.suery@simap.grenoble-inp.fr

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