Supported:
Desktop browsers: Chrome, Firefox, Opera, Safari
Mobile devices: All iOS devices, Android (Chrome)

Unsupported:
Internet Explorer, Android browser

MOVIES
Click the image to view a movie
DENDRITIC GROWTH

Seaweed solidification

"Seaweed pattern" observed real-time in thin-sample directional solidification of a dilute transparent alloy (CBr4-C2Cl6) far above the threshold velocity of the Mullins-Sekerka (cellular) instability (horizontal dimension: 350 microns). This solidification pattern replaces dendritic arrays when the anisotropy of the surface tension vanishes. It is obtained here by solidifying a single cubic (fcc) crystal with a 3-fold, [111] axis nearly perpendicular to the thin-sample plane. (5 Mb) (Movie provided by Silvere Akamtsu)

Initial transient

In situ and real-time observation by synchrotron X-ray radiography of the initial transient during non refined Al-4.0wt% Cu solidification, G = 37 K/cm. The transition from a planar interface to a cellular then dendritic front is induced by cooling down the hot zone of the furnace at R = 1 K/min. The aluminium rich solidified part appears in white, while the Cu enriched liquid is dark. (3.6 Mb)

This movie was obtained by in-situ X-ray radiography carried out at ESRF Grenoble on the ID19 beamline. For further information and other work, please send email to: Bernard Billia, Henri Nguyen, Nathalie Mangelinck, or Guillaume Reinhart

Equiaxed growth #1

In situ and real-time observation by synchrotron X-ray radiography of the equiaxed growth in nearly isothermal conditions of non-refined Al-10wt% Cu alloy. Solidification was induced by decreasing the temperatures of hot and cold zones of the furnace at R = 0.5 K/min. At first the dendritic grain growth is free then it stops because of solutal interactions with neighboring grain.
(1 Mb)

This movie was obtained by in-situ X-ray radiography carried out at ESRF Grenoble on the ID19 beamline. For further information and other work, please send email to: Bernard Billia, Henri Nguyen, Nathalie Mangelinck, or Guillaume Reinhart

Equiaxed growth #2

In situ and real-time observation by synchrotron X-ray radiography of the equiaxed growth in nearly isothermal conditions of non-refined Al-10wt% Cu alloy. Solidification was induced by decreasing the temperatures of hot and cold zones of the furnace at R = 3 K/min. At first the dendritic grain growth is free then it stops because of solutal interactions with neighboring grain.
(1.5 Mb)

This movie was obtained by in-situ X-ray radiography carried out at ESRF Grenoble on the ID19 beamline. For further information and other work, please send email to: Bernard Billia, Henri Nguyen, Nathalie Mangelinck, or Guillaume Reinhart

Solidification in a magnetic field #1

Deflection of equiaxed grain trajectories during the solidification of Al-10wt%Cu sample, in a temperature gradient of 10 K/cm for a cooling rate of 2 K/min and under a weak static magnetic field (0.08T): This movie is the experimental evidence that equiaxed grains are forced to move by both gravity and Thermo-Electro-Magnetic (TEM) forces. The latter is proportional to both temperature gradient and applied magnetic field (supplementary materials in Journal of Crystal Growth, 417:25-30,2015)

This movie was obtained by in-situ and real-time X-radiography carried out at the ESRF in Grenoble, France at beamline BM05. For further information, please email to: Henri Nguyen, Yves Fautrelle

Solidification in a magnetic field #2

Deflection of equiaxed grain trajectories during the solidification of Al-10wt%Cu sample, in a temperature gradient of 5 K/cm for a cooling rate of 2 K/min and under a weak static magnetic field (0.08T): This movie is the experimental evidence that equiaxed grains are forced to move by both gravity and Thermo-Electro-Magnetic (TEM) forces. The latter is proportional to both temperature gradient and applied magnetic field.

This movie was obtained by in-situ and real-time X-radiography carried out at the ESRF in Grenoble, France at beamline BM05. For further information, please email to: Henri Nguyen, Yves Fautrelle

CET on a levitated droplet

Solidification of a liquid Ti-45at%Al-2at%B droplet levitated by an AC magnetic field. The diameter of the droplet is 10mm. The liquid is first superheated to 1630C, then cooled down by Helium gas. During cooling, precipitates of TiB-TiB2 are formed before reaching the liquidus temperature of the alloy (around 1520C). They act as nucleant particles promoting a CET when the surface of the droplet reaches the liquidus temperature. The final structure of the solid sample is fully equiaxed.

This movie was obtained by in-situ and real-time observations carried out at SIMAP-EPM laboratory in Grenoble, France by Mickael Dumont in the framework of EU-FP6-IMPRESS program (2008). For further information, please email to: Yves Fautrelle

Columnar to equiaxed transition growth

In situ and real-time observation by synchrotron X-ray radiography of the columnar to Equiaxed Transition (CET) during refined Al-3.5wt% Ni solidification, G = 30 K/cm. CET is induced by increasing the pulling rate from V = 1.5 to 12 microns/s. The aluminium rich solidified parts appear in grey while the Ni enriched liquid is darker.
(5 Mb)

This movie was obtained by in-situ X-ray radiography carried out at ESRF Grenoble on the ID19 beamline. For further information and other work, please send email to: Bernard Billia, Henri Nguyen, Nathalie Mangelinck, or Guillaume Reinhart

Fragmentation

Fragmentation in Al-20wt%Cu during directional solidification anti parallel with gravity. Imposed temperature gradient of 48 K/mm, and sample velocity of 25 microns/s. (7.7 & 7.8 Mb)

These movies, produced by Ragnvald Mathiesen and Lars Arnberg, were obtained by in-situ X-ray video microscopy carried out at the ESRF in Grenoble, France at beam lines ID22 and ID6. For further information, please email to: Ragnvald.Mathiesen@ntnu.no

Evolution of a single dendrite during solidification

This movie, imaged by X-Ray tomography carried out at ESRF Grenoble on the ID19 beamline, shows the evolution during solidification of a single dendrite extracted from the volume of an Al-10%Cu alloy specimen. The various coarsening mechanisms can be observed: dissolution of the small secondary dendrite arms to the benefit of the adjacent ones, and coalescence of two adjacent arms. (1 Mb)

This movie was obtained by in-situ X-Ray tomography carried out at ESRF Grenoble on the ID19 beamline. For further information and other work by Michel Suery, please send email to: michel.suery@simap.grenoble-inp.fr

Dendritic growth

Phase-field simulation of dendritic growth from an undercooled melt. The simulation is started from a spherical seed of solid in a uniformly undercooled liquid. Cubic anisotropy in the surface energy is included, which creates the main branches. The growth speed of the tips is well described by solvability theory. For details, see M. Plapp and A. Karma, Multiscale Finite-Difference-Diffusion-Monte-Carlo method for simulating dendritic solidification, J. Comp. Phys. 165, 592 (2000). (910 kb) This movie derives from phase-field simulations performed by Mathis Plapp and his collaborators.

Cellular solidification

This movie shows a directional solidification front in a dilute binary alloy, simulated by the phase-field method. The initial flat interface rapidly develops a morphological instability, and the front becomes cellular. The 'camera' follows the isotherms such that a cell tips appear immobile in the movie once they have reached an approximate steady state. (33 Mb) This movie derives from phase-field simulations performed by Mathis Plapp and his collaborators.

Grain Competition

Dendritic growth in a Succinonitrile-Acetone alloy. The initial solid shows three grains, with the central grain oriented with the [100] direction oriented at almost 45 degrees to the pulling direction, while the neighboring grains are nearly parallel to the pulling direction. The misoriented grain has to grow faster than its neighbors due to its orientation, and thus requires larger tip undercooling. This makes it lag the neighbors, and it is gradually overgrown by the more favorably oriented grains. Experiments performed at EPFL by H. Esaka.

Phase-field simulation of binary alloy solidification

Simulation of directional solidification of a Succinonitrile-Acetone alloy using the phase-field method (see Chapter 8). The simulation uses an adaptive grid that follows the solid-sliquid interface. Realized with Nik Provatas. (30 Mb) Contributed by Jon Dantzig

solidification 2017 - webdesign by Comstrukt